Volume 7, Issue 4, July 2018, Page: 50-56
Randomized Controlled Trial on the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol for Ongoing Traumatic Stress with Adolescents and Young Adults Patients with Cancer
Amalia Osorio, Department of Research, Ágape, Psycho-Oncology and Research Center, Puebla, Mexico
María Cristina Pérez, Department of Research, Ágape, Psycho-Oncology and Research Center, Puebla, Mexico
Sofía Gabriela Tirado, Department of Research, Ágape, Psycho-Oncology and Research Center, Puebla, Mexico
Ignacio Jarero, Department of Research, Mexican Association for Mental Health Support in Crisis, Mexico City, Mexico
Martha Givaudan, Department of Research, Mexican Association for Mental Health Support in Crisis, Mexico City, Mexico
Received: Oct. 21, 2018;       Accepted: Nov. 5, 2018;       Published: Nov. 30, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajap.20180704.11      View  740      Downloads  179
Abstract
The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of the EMDR-Integrative Group Treatment Protocol for Ongoing Traumatic Stress (EMDR-IGTP-OTS) in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, depression and anxiety symptoms related to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Twenty-three adolescents and young adults (13 male and 10 female) with different types of cancer (breast, leukemia, lymphoma) and PTSD symptoms related to their diagnosis and cancer treatment met the inclusion criteria. Participants age ranged from 13 to 22 years old (M = 16.71 years). Participant’s time since diagnosis varied from 2006 to 2018. Participants in treatment (N=11) and no-treatment control (N=12) groups completed pre, post, and follow up measurements using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data analysis by repeated measures ANOVA showed that the EMDR-IGTP-OTS was effective in significantly reducing symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, with symptoms maintained at 90-day follow-up and with large effect sizes (e.g., d=1.17). A comparison of the treatment and no-treatment control groups showed significantly greater decreases for the treatment group on symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression. This study suggests that EMDR-IGTP-OTS may be an efficient and effective way to address cancer-related PTSD, depressive, and anxious symptoms in adolescents and young adults.
Keywords
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), EMDR-IGTP-OTS, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Anxiety, Depression, Adolescents, Cancer
To cite this article
Amalia Osorio, María Cristina Pérez, Sofía Gabriela Tirado, Ignacio Jarero, Martha Givaudan, Randomized Controlled Trial on the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol for Ongoing Traumatic Stress with Adolescents and Young Adults Patients with Cancer, American Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 7, No. 4, 2018, pp. 50-56. doi: 10.11648/j.ajap.20180704.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
World Health Organization (2018). WHO Global Initiative for Childhood Cancer. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/cancer/en/.
[2]
National Cancer Institute (2017). Cancer in Children and Adolescents. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved from: https://www.cancer.gov/types/childhood-cancers/child-adolescent-cancers-fact-sheet.
[3]
Andrykowski, M. A., Kangas, M. (2010). Posttraumatic stress disorder associated with cancer diagnosis and treatment. 2nd ed. In: Holland JC, Breitbart WS, Jacobsen PB, Lederberg MS, Loscalzo MJ, Mc Corklen R, editors. Oxford Textbook of Psycho-Oncology. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 348–57.
[4]
Bruce, E.; Desjardins, Leandra; Vannatta, Kathryn; Young-Saleme Tammi; Rodriguez, Erin M.; Dunn, Madeleine; Bemis, Heather; Snyder, Sarah; Gerhardt, Cynthia A. (2014). Children and adolescents coping with cancer: Self- and parent reports of coping and anxiety/depression. Health Psychology, 33(8), 853-861. Retrieved from: http://psycnet.apa.org/buy/2014-30548-003.
[5]
Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R.; Ruiz-Párraga, Gema T.; Esteve, Rosa; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; López Martínez, Alicia E. (2018). Validation of the child PTSD symptom scale in spanish adolescents. Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos del Principado de Asturias, España. Retreived from: http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=72754594020.
[6]
Shapiro, F. (2018). Eye movements desensitization and reprocessing. Basic principles, protocols, and procedures (Third edition). Guilford Press.
[7]
Jarero, I., & Artigas, L. (2018). AIP model-based Acute Trauma and Ongoing Traumatic Stress Theoretical Conceptualization. Iberoamerican Journal of Psychotraumatology and Dissociation, 10(1), 1-7.
[8]
Jarero, I., Artigas, L., & Luber, M. (2011). The EMDR protocol for recent critical incidents: Application in a disaster mental health continuum of care context. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(3), 82–94.
[9]
Jarero, I., Artigas, L., Uribe, S., García, L. E., Cavazos, M. A., & Givaudan, M. (2015). Pilot research study on the provision of the EMDR integrative group treatment protocol with female cancer patients. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 9(2), 98–105.
[10]
Centonze, D., Siracusane, A., Calabresi, P., and Bernardi, G. (2005). Removing pathogenic memories. Mol. Neurobiol. 32, 123–132.
[11]
van der Kolk, B. A., & van der Hart, O. (1991). The intrusive past: The flexibility of memory and the engraving of trauma. American Imago, 48(4), 425–454.
[12]
Jarero, I., Amaya, C., Givaudan, M., Miranda, A. (2013). EMDR Individual protocol for paraprofessional use: A randomized controlled trial with first responders. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(2), 55-64.
[13]
Logie, R., & de Jongh, A. (2014). The “flashforward” procedure: Confronting the catastrophe. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 8, 25–32.
[14]
Jarero, I., & Artigas, L. (2014). The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (IGTP) for adults. In M. Luber (Ed.), Implementing EMDR early mental health interventions for man-made and natural disasters (pp. 253–265). New York, NY: Springer Publishing.
[15]
Jarero, I., Artigas, L., Uribe, S., & García, L. E. (2016). The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol for Patients with Cancer. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(3), 199-207.
[16]
Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. (2001). SPRINT: A brief global assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 16(5), 279–284.
[17]
Jarero, I., Givaudan, M., Osorio, A. Randomized Controlled Trial on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol Adapted for Ongoing Traumatic Stress to Female Patients with Cancer-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms. (2018). Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(3), 94-104.
[18]
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA.
[19]
Weathers, F. W., Litz, B. T., Keane, T. M., Palmieri, P. A., Marx, B. P., & Schnurr, P. P. (2013). The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Scale available from the National Center for PTSD at www.ptsd.va.gov.
[20]
Zigmond, A. S. & Snaith, R. P. (1983). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, 361-370.
[21]
Roberts, A. (2018). The effects of the EMDR Group Traumatic Episode Protocol with cancer survivors. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(3), 105-117.
[22]
Shapiro, E. “The EMDR Group Traumatic Episode Protocol.” (2013). Presentation to the EMDR Turkey Conference, Istanbul, Turkey.
[23]
Maxfield, L., & Hyer, L. (2002). The relationship between efficacy and methodology in studies investigating EMDR treatment of PTSD. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 23-41.
[24]
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. Text Revised). Arlington, VA.
[25]
Ornelas-Mejorada, R. E., Tufiño, M. A., Sánchez-Sosa, J. J. (2011). Ansiedad y depresión en mujeres con cáncer de mama en radioterapia: Prevalencia y factores asociados. Acta de Investigación Psicológica, 1(3), 401-414.
[26]
Rico, J. L., Restrepo, M., Molina, M. (2005). Adaptación y validación de la escala hospitalaria de ansiedad y depresión (HAD) en una muestra de pacientes con cáncer del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de Colombia. Avances en Medición, 3, 73-86.
[27]
Bongaerts, H., Van Minnen, A., de Jongh, A. (2017). Intensive EMDR to treat patients with complex posttraumatic stress disorder: A case series. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11(2), 84-95.
[28]
Lobenstine, F., & Courtney, D. (2013). A case study: The integration of intensive EMDR and ego state therapy to treat comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7, 66–80.
[29]
McCarthy, M. C., McNeil, R., Drew, S., Dunt, D., Kosola, S., Orme, L., Sawyer, S. M. (2016). Psychological Distress and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer and Their Parents. Journal of Adolescents and Young Adults Oncology, 5(4), 59-64.
[30]
Yule W, Bolton D, Udwin O, Boyle S, O’Ryan D, Nurrish J. (2000). The long-term psychological effects of a disaster experienced in adolescence: I: The incidence and course of PTSD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 41: 503–11.
[31]
Faretta, E., & Civilotti, C. (2016). EMDR therapy in psycho-oncology: A bridge between mind and body. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(3), 138–152.
[32]
Shapiro, F. Clinician’s Corner: EMDR Therapy. International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. Stress Points. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.istss.org/education-research/traumatic-stresspoints/2016-april/clinician-s-corner-emdr-therapy.aspx.
Browse journals by subject